Noise can cause the sleeper to awaken repeatedly and to report poor sleep quality the next day, but noise can also produce reactions of which the individual is unaware. These reactions include changes from heavier to lighter stages of sleep, reductions in "rapid eye movement" (REM) sleep, increases in body movements during the night, changes in cardiovascular responses, and mood changes and performance decrements the next day. The accuracy and efficiency with which these effects are measured has been greatly assisted by the use of contemporary computers. The most popular measurement tool nowadays is electro-encephalography, but other methods, such as
Noise is one of the most common forms of sleep disturbance, and sleep disturbance is a critical component of noise-related annoyance. A study used by EPA in preparing the Levels Document showed that sleep interference was the most frequently cited activity disrupted by surface vehicle noise (BBN, 1971). Aircraft none can also cause sleep disruption, especially in recent years with the escalation of nighttime operations by the air cargo industry. When sleep disruption becomes chronic, its adverse effects on health and well-being are well-known.
Noise can disrupt face-to-face and telephone conversation, and the enjoyment of radio and television in the home. It can also disrupt effective communication between teachers and pupils in schools, and can cause fatigue and vocal strain in those who need to communicate in spite of the noise. Interference with communication has proved to be one of the most important components of noise-related annoyance (EPA, 1974a).
For example, elementary school children on the side of a school facing train tracks. performed more poorly on a reading achievement test than children in classrooms on the quiet side of the school (Bronzaft and McCarthy,:1975).(14) Cohen and Weinstein also discuss research showing that skills, such as auditory discrimination and reading achievement can be adversely affected when children live in noisy circumstances, even though their schools may be no noisier than average. These latter studies indicate that interference with communication in the classroom is not the only process at work here. Possible additional explanations include adverse effects on children's information processing strategies and their feelings of personal control (15) (Cohen and Weinstein, 1981).
The most effective way to control these problems is through a system of “Signal Control Timings.” The new AUSCI (Adaptive Urban Street Control and Integration) technology automatically adjusts traffic signal timing based on actual traffic flow conditions....
The effects of noise are seldom catastrophic, and are often only transitory, but adverse effects can be cumulative with prolonged or repeated exposure. Although it often causes discomfort and sometimes pain, noise does not cause ears to bleed and noise-induced hearing loss usually takes years to develop. Noise-induced hearing loss can indeed impair the quality of life, through a reduction in the ability to hear important sounds and to communicate with family and friends. Some of the other effects of noise, such as sleep disruption, the masking of speech and television, and the inability to enjoy one's property or leisure time also impair the quality of life. In addition, noise can interfere with the teaching and learning process, disrupt the performance of certain tasks, and increase the incidence of antisocial behavior. There is also some evidence that it can adversely affect general health and well-being in the same manner as chronic stress. These effects will be discussed in more detail in the paragraphs below.
They paid particular attention to people's changing attitudes toward the automobile. They found that people of every income level considered the automobile a necessity rather than an luxury.
This required significant advancement in machining, the creation of parts, but after a couple years he was able to create machines that could be easily operated and create identical, interchangeable parts ("Henry Ford Changes the World")....
In response to the mandates of Section 5 of the Noise Control Act of 1972, ONAC published Public Health and welfare Criteria for Noise (EPA, 1973a) and Information on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite to Protect Public Health and welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety (EPA, 1974a), popularly known as the "Levels Document" for obvious reasons). Also in 1973,ONAC sponsored an international conference in Yugoslavia on the effects of noise, from which voluminous proceedings there published (EPA, 1973b). All of these documents there widely distributed and, although somewhat dated, are still read and referenced today. Because a considerable amount of research in this area has been conducted over the past 2 decades, these documents would benefit from revision.
In these documents ONAC established dose-response relationships for noise and its effects, and identified safe levels of noise to prevent hearing loss and activity interference. The agency also established the day-night average noise level as a universal descriptor to be used in assessing the impact of community noise.
It is concluded from the arguments and presentations made in the paper that automobiles have become an integral part of society. Automobiles have influenced every segment of society effecting and shaping the today’s world. The evolving ‘automobile society’ of twentieth-century world resulted in liberty and freedom, not only on a single type of transportation, but also on petroleum, evolution of new suburban and urban forms, huge commercial development and engulfing pollution. The dependence and auto usage have significantly increased, especially in women and older people. The automobiles have influenced the public life to a huge extent, extending the overall boundaries of cities on a pace and scale which is not experienced before. Although, transportation of different types continuously play a main role in extending the borders of urban areas, the automobile has successfully extended them to a large extent. People, not only in cities, but in suburbs have become absolutely dependent, particularly on car for shopping, work, recreation and obtaining services.
Section 14 of the Act directs ONAC to conduct or finance research on noise effects, including investigations of the psychological and physiological effects of noise on humans and the effects of noise on animals. Approximately 35 technical reports resulted from these efforts, as well as contractor reports and numerous articles in scientific journals. Some of the more noteworthy examples of EPA's research program there:
The US is sometimes referred to as “a nation on wheels.” Considering these facts, one must wonder what the United States was like before the revolutionary innovation of the automobile....