The greatest scientists readily admitted that the theories and data of physics, that hardest of the hard sciences, drew highly limited descriptions of reality, and those scientists were usually, to one extent or another, . If textbook science falls far short of explaining reality, what can be said within its framework that is useful? Plenty. Our industrialized world is based on textbook science and feats such as putting men on the Moon were performed within the parameters of textbook science. With the waning of overspecialization and overreliance on reductionism in the last decades of the 20th century, multidisciplinary works have proliferated and will tend to dominate the references for this essay. I have found them not only very helpful for my own understanding, but they are appropriate references for a generalist essay. I have also avoided scientific terminology when feasible. For example, I use “seafloor” instead of “,” and if a non-specialized term will suffice for a scientific concept, I will often use it.
Readers for the collective task that I have in mind need to become familiar with the scientific process, partly so they can develop a critical eye for the kinds of arguments and evidence that attend the pursuit of FE and other fringe science/technology efforts. For the remainder of this essay, I will attempt to refrain from referring to too many scientific papers and getting into too many details of the controversies. Following my references will help readers who want to go deeply into the issues, and many of them are as deep and controversial as the Snowball Earth hypothesis and aftermath has proven to be, or attempts to explain the . These are relatively new areas of scientific investigation, partly due to an improved scientific toolset and ingenious ways to use them. It is very possible that the controversies in those areas will diminish within the next generation as new hypotheses account for increasingly sophisticated data, and in the near future are nearly certain. But science is always subject to becoming dogmatic and hypotheses can prevail for reasons of wealth, power, rhetorical skill, and the like, not because they are valid. The history of science is plagued with that phenomenon, and probably will be as long as humanity lives in the era of scarcity.
Those energy concepts are real ones that all economies face, and financial measures only reflect them. In the USA, just , Peak Oil was . In 1973, the first oil crisis hit, and have declined since then. Wages were only a reflection of energy consumption, which also peaked in the 1970s for the USA and by that real wages per hour have. The USA’s declining standard of living since the 1970s was minor compared to the devastation inflicted on developing nations. The was initiated by the oil price shocks of the 1970s. Many nations have yet to recover. When the oil price shocks hit, and other measures were inflicted by Western institutions on developing nations. As people such as , those policies were intentionally used to enslave those nations. On the world stage, the self-image promoted by the West is that of blundering do-gooders. As people such as , it is a false narrative designed to hide corrupt motivation from the outset. It is simply more of that . I have written a great deal elsewhere on , how the resembles fairy tales, how professions and industries have , how the , just like genocidal invasions, were always economically motivated, usually to secure energy resources. This essay does not need to belabor those trends, but anybody not can clearly see that the game being played on the global stage is the same one that has been played: economically exploiting others. Because industrialized civilization is beginning to run out of the energy sources that the West used to industrialize, a universal decline in humanity’s standard of living has begun. The USA has transitioned from the land of opportunity to a deindustrializing economy in which bankers and other capitalists are designed to rob one class in favor of another. The aspect of those machinations is painfully obvious. The mind-control techniques that Orwell and Huxley wrote about have been turned into sciences, and there are even “competitions” between their dystopian visions to see .
The first civilizations, located in the Fertile Crescent, also impaired their energy supplies through unsustainable practices such as . Those civilizations all collapsed, and the death knell was always starvation, which is running out of the energy (i.e., food) needed to fuel human bodies. There was an exodus from Mesopotamia and vicinity to lands yet to be despoiled by civilization, and that is ended up on the Mediterranean's periphery. In their turn, those Mediterranean civilizations repeated the dynamic of deforestation and agriculture, and they all eventually collapsed, from to to to . In those examples, the trajectory was generally one of profligate deforestation and agriculture on newly exposed forest soils, to a decline in yields due to soil depletion and desertification, to belated attempts at conservation and attempts to boost the energy supply, to a final collapse. Conquering and plundering one's neighbors was one way to temporarily boost the energy supply, which Rome refined to a science, as it drove and to extinction. As Rome's , it had to plunder from , which further reduced its EROI. Those practices were anything but sustainable, and when each civilization collapsed, the region went moribund for centuries as ecosystems recovered to the point where they could sustain civilization again. However, those practices eventually turned verdant forests into deserts, as any . The energy provided by wood and soils was depleted by all early civilizations, and their collapses were energy crises above all else.
One major problem with making a positive impact on a global level, ultra-elite machinations aside, is that almost nobody focuses on what is important, which I hope to help remedy with this essay. Almost everybody hacks at branches if they hack at all. Conspiracists tend to obsess on elite machinations, which is an exercise of dubious benefit to begin with, but they often become paranoid and also confuse retail elites or other interests with the GCs. Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are probably not members of the GCs’ organization. Also, I learned that ultra-elites can only play their games with the responsibility that almost all people have abdicated as they play the victim. The GCs are only a symptom of our malaise, not a cause. They cannot be beaten at their game, and it is counterproductive and can even be suicidal to try. Making them obsolete is probably the best that we can do. While conspiracists often fixate on ultra-elite machinations, intellectuals, academics, and scientists tend to deny that such activities even exist or are meaningful. It took me many years to understand their resistance to even acknowledging ultra-elite existence, and I think it partly relates to the mainstream scientific worldview that . They have an ideological aversion to the notion that anybody manipulates events on a global scale, and believe that what seems conspiratorial is only anarchic elites competing with each other, which is like Darwin’s view of evolution. They believe that conspiracists see a pattern where none exists, or that the situation can be explained without invoking conscious intent, like materialistic hypotheses of how the universe operates. Radical leftists have to the of such elites; such an idea scares them. Neither obsession nor denial helps people attain productive understandings of the issue. Conspiracists and structuralists are united in thinking like victims, and that, as I see it, . Until they relinquish thinking like a victim, they will not constructively engage the critical issues that humanity faces, and energy ranks above all else. Victims are reactive instead of proactive, and only and resulting action has a prayer of working, in my opinion.
BA English Essay: Energy crisis in Pakistan
Pakistan is experiencing the worst economic crisis since its creation. Factories and power looms are being closed down and the people do not have any idea what to do. There are many factors which have contributed towards the energy crisis and the government has failed miserably in solving this problem of load shedding.
Pakistan has been unable to build any major dam in the country. The population has been increasing very rapidly since 2000 and no government has started the work on the proposed Kalabagh Dam in the region. As the population has been increasing the electricity demand has also increase but the supply has remained the same. Lack of education has made people ignorant and heartless. People do not care to turn off the light in the room they are not sitting and they regard it a thing of pride to overuse electricity.
There are three other major reasons for the energy crises. They are circular debt, mismanagement of resources and corruption. A significant amount of electricity in Pakistan is produced by oil. Failure to pay the oil companies results in the low supply which results in energy crisis. The power plants, operating in
Pakistan, are either not operating on their full capacity or they are not even running. We all talk about the corruption done by the government officials, but we never talk about the corruption done the citizens who are perceived as innocent Pakistanis. At least 50% of Pakistanis are either not giving the electricity bill or are bribing the officials to reduce the amount of the bill.
There have been serious repercussions of the energy crisis. Everyone in Pakistan has been badly affected by the energy crisis. There was a common belief that only the poor people in Pakistan suffer, but energy crisis has also destroyed the lives of the rich people. Students are not able to learn or concentrate on their studies as the attention is diverted because of the 12-hour load shedding. Industrialists have started relocating their industries to Bangladesh as it is no longer feasible for them to run their businesses in Pakistan. People belonging to the middle class are having great difficulty in finding the jobs because all the major businesses are either shutting down or making their employees redundant.
It is both the duty of government and the citizens to use electricity with care and denounce all those people who are involved in this corruption. Government, with its resources, can punish all the culprits severely so that a precedent is set no one could ever gain dare to steal electricity.
Mass extinction events may be the result of multiple ecosystem stresses that reach the level where the ecosystem unravels. Other than the meteor impact that destroyed the dinosaurs, the rest of the mass extinctions seem to have multiple contributing causes, and each one ultimately had an energy impact on life processes. The processes can be complex and scientists are only beginning to understand them. This essay will survey mass extinction events and their aftermaths in some detail, as they were critical junctures in the journey of life on Earth.
An important evolutionary principle is organisms' developing a new feature for one purpose and then using that feature for other purposes as the opportunity arose. As complex life evolved in the newly oxygenated seafloors, several immediate survival needs had to be addressed. To revisit the , if an oxygen-dependent animal did not have access to oxygen, it meant immediate death. Obtaining oxygen would have been the salient requirement for early complex life that adopted aerobic respiration , which is how nearly all animals today respire. While animals in low-oxygen environments have adapted to other ways of respiring (or perhaps in the first place), they are all sluggish creatures and would have quickly lost in the coming arms race. , which is a critical connective tissue in animals, requires oxygen for its synthesis, and was one of numerous oxygen-dependencies that animals quickly adopted during the Cambrian Explosion.
All species live within their niches, which are always primarily energy niches, in which an organism can obtain enough energy and preserve it for long enough to produce viable offspring. There are usually energy tradeoffs; efficiency could be sacrificed for rate of ingestion, so that efficiency was reduced but input was increased enough so that the increased cost of obtaining it was worthwhile, such as with . The primary measure of an organism’s success is its energy surplus, which is related to resilience. As an example, today a trout can live in a fast-moving current where food quickly arrives, which is efficient from an input perspective, but the energy spent swimming to maintain a presence in the current reduces the net energy surplus. A slower stream will provide less food per unit of time, but it also takes less energy to live there. In trout studies, the dominant trout will live where the optimal energy tradeoff exists, which leads to the greatest energy surplus. Less dominant trout will be pushed into the faster water, and the least competitive trout will be pushed into calm water and slowly starve. No species will last for long if it does not have a high enough energy surplus so that it can survive the vagaries of existence. The energy surplus issue has not been emphasized in biology during the past century, as the “” of a species has been emphasized, but it is the variable for understanding species fitness.
In the oceans, the Carboniferous is called the Golden Age of Sharks, and ray-finned fish arose to a ubiquity that they have yet to fully relinquish. Ray-finned fish probably prevailed because of their high energy efficiency. Their skeletons and scales were lighter than those of armored and lobe-finned fish, and their increasingly sophisticated and lightweight fins, their efficient tailfin method of propulsion, changes in their skulls, jaws, and new ways to use their lightweight and versatile equipment accompanied and probably led to the rise and subsequent success of ray-finned fish in the Carboniferous and afterward. , which are amoebic protists, rose to prominence for the first time in the Carboniferous. Reefs began to recover, although they did not recover to pre-Devonian conditions; those vast Devonian reefs have not been seen again. did not appear until the . Trilobites steadily declined and nautiloids familiar today, and straight shells became rare. The first , which were ancestral to squids and octopi, first appeared in the early Carboniferous, but some Devonian specimens might qualify. Ammonoids flourished once again, after barely surviving the Devonian Extinction. This essay is only focusing on certain prominent clades, and there are many and . The early Carboniferous, for example, is called the Golden Age of , which are a kind of , which is a phylum that includes starfish. The crinoids had their golden age when the fish that fed on them disappeared in the end-Devonian extinction. Earth’s ecosystems are vastly richer entities than this essay, or essay, can depict.