James E. Hickey, Precision-guided Munitions and Human Suffering in War (New York: Routledge, 2012), pp. 79-89; Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons, pp. 124, 305; John Gliedman, Terror from the Sky: North Vietnam’s Dikes and the U.S. Bombing (Cambridge, MA: Vietnam Resource Center, 1972); Herring, America’s Longest War, p. 248; and Andrew Cockburn, Kill Chain: The Rise of the High Tech Assassins (New York: Henry Holt, 2015), p. 30.
For an excellent analysis of economic motives interwoven in the American quest for hegemonic power in Asia as well as ideological-driven rationales, see Noam Chomsky, At War with Asia: Essays on Indochina (New York: Vintage Books, 1970; republished, Chico, CA: AK Press, 2004).
Reorienting American thinking about the war was an uphill climb. The generation that came of age during the Vietnam War was raised on heroic World War II stories, pumped full of national pride, and indoctrinated to believe in the benevolence of American foreign policies. Still, the purported “threat” of a communist-led government in a small country halfway around the world did not elicit the same fighting spirit as defending the nation in the aftermath of the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. This was true for the general population as well – the necessity of the war was not obvious. Hence, the administration had to work assiduously to persuade the public that developments in Vietnam did indeed pose a dire threat to the security of the United States as well as to the survival of the so-called Free World.
de la Garza and LouisDeSipio, "Interests not Passions: Mexican American Attitudes Toward Mexico andIssues Shaping U.S.-Mexico Relations" (Unpublished paper, 1997).
In this context, relations between the two communities across the borderare often presented as an indication of the growing integration of North andSouth America.[sup129]The new approach toward the diaspora is often presented in Mexico ascriticism of Paz's pachuco characterization.
The end of the Mexican-American War in 1848, the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the Dred Scott Decision of 1857, John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry in 1859, and the outcome of the Presidential Election of 1860 all helped contribute to southern secession and the s...
Many writershave stressed the disaffection of Mexican Americans with their troubled homelandor have underscored Mexico's indifference (even animosity) toward its kindredpopulation across the border.
Thus, many Mexican Americans have looked to their mother country for emotionaland cultural solace while at the same time harboring great animosity toward theMexican state that failed them.
Mexico'spolitical and economic advances and setbacks over the last 150 years have beenparalleled by equally dramatic changes within Mexican-American communities andhave been reflected in Mexico's position towards its diaspora, with each sidedisplaying profound ambivalence toward the other.
The Chicanos' past is underscored by conquest of the present-day American Southwest first by the Spanish and then by the United States following the Mexican American War" (xv)....
The Mexicans’ past is underscored by conquest of the present-day American Southwest first by the Spanish and then by the United States following the Mexican American War.
Aboveall, Mexican Americans are wary of any action which "might raise the specter ofdisloyalty, and the legitimacy of their new-found status [as pro-Mexicanlobbyists] would be questioned."[sup39] To avert such a danger, Mexican-Americanleaders who interact with Mexico always stress their American identity.
Specifically this paper will be detailing six different areas: the Mexican American War, Anti-Mexican American violence, Texas, the Great Depression, the Bracero program, and documented versus undocumented status....
Mexico lost half of its national territory in theMexican-American war of 1846-1848, and whoremained were quickly disenfranchised and dispossessed by Anglo-Americans whooverwhelmed the new diaspora in numbers and marginalized the politically and economically through taxlaws and extralegal means.[sup41]In 1877, a long period of national upheaval in Mexico was brought to an endby the rise to power of General Porfirio Diaz, a leader with strong connectionsto business interests in the United States.
The events ofWorld War I and the general American anxiety regarding the alleged threat toAmerica's national identity by ethnic groups with dual allegiances[sup45]sparked opposition to the influx of Mexican migrants.