A few of the obstacles experienced by MYSA include health risks and injuries to the youths, difficulty involving older youths in the clean-ups, promoting community cooperation in waste disposal, a lack of ability to expand into recycling to generate income, involving female youths in sports, and an inability to accommodate street children in its project (Personal communication, MYSA). For 1991, the total expenditures of MYSA were $10,700 (US) on equipment and the coordinator's salary (Munro, 1992: 209). This money is provided by Scandinavian donor agencies who also sponsor MYSA's "all-star" team to travel to Europe for occasional tournaments.
Uvumbuzi has gradually withdrawn its support for the composting groups, except in the areas of transporting and marketing the wastes. CBOs linked with Uvumbuzi include the Grogan 'A' Waste Recycling Group (Korogocho), the Kuku Women's Group (Dandora), the Block-Making Women's Group (Kariobangi), the Korogocho Mbolea Group and the Nyayo Market Group (Korogocho).
Agenda 21 included an action plan for cities wishing to enhance urban sustainability. These recommendations included institutionalizing a participatory approach and improving the urban environment by promoting social organization and environmental awareness. The need to promote actively, to strengthen and expand waste re-use and recycling systems was also recognized in Agenda 21. The consensus on sustainable development which emerged from the Earth Summit now must be transformed into action by engaging in a period of decentralized experimentation (Brugmann, 1994: 129).
landfills, taking about one thousand years to decompose, but only 5.2 percent were recycled (Borrud, 2007, p.75).-These are the figures plastic bags have produced every year.
Sub-Saharan Africa is one region where this experimentation is actively occurring now, especially after the 1980s economic crisis which resulted in increased hardship for most of the region's poor. The serious problems which confront African cities as a result of the 1980s' economic crisis have been well documented (Stren and White, 1989). One enduring consequence is the inability of African governments to sustain adequate levels of urban services. As continuing economic hardship forces a growing number of migrants to urban areas in search of employment, an even greater strain is placed on urban pressure points like solid waste management. Both financially and physically, a city may be unable to provide waste collection, especially to the urban poor occupying peri-urban or other geographically inaccessible areas. The urban poor are left to contend with waste disposal on their own. The lack of support given to the urban poor in this area has serious consequences on their health and on the urban environment. Thus, in cities of the developing world, the management of solid wastes is now an issue of vital importance to urban sustainability.
Undugu became involved in the composting efforts of Uvumbuzi and FSDA because they wanted to promote an integrated approach to urban environmental problems through a clean living environment (waste recycling) and food security (urban agriculture). FSDA was responsible for training two groups linked with Undugu (Kinyago Bidii Group in Kitui-Pumwani and Ushirikisho Women's Group in Kibera). Undugu Society extension workers integrate the composting activities with other community development efforts.
The recycling community – according to the , more than 7 million households added carton recycling access this year. We’re proud that our hometown, Des Moines, joined the ranks of those communities that now collect and recycle cartons.
The green building community – we appreciate the owners, builders, contractors and architects who are focused on sustainable structures in their communities. From other recycled content products to energy-saving materials, we’re honored to be included among the list of eco-friendly materials used throughout the country.
The importance of a clean environment to human health, especially that of children, is described in detail by Hardoy et al. (1992) and Satterthwaite (1993).
In Nairobi, many NGOs have a strong presence in the city's informal settlements. They play an important role in providing education, health care,and many other urban services. The strength of the NGOs included in this study is their recognition that solutions to urban problems are not isolated, but interconnected. This recognition is reflected in the integrated approach they are taking to environmental management and community development.
Despite the proliferation of informal waste picking in Nairobi (Syagga's 1992 research estimated that scavengers collect 20 tonnes of the 800 to 1000 tonnes of solid waste generated daily in Nairobi), there are still inorganic components of the waste stream which are not being reused or recycled and therefore represent a serious environmental hazard. The most abundant of these wastes are the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic bags which have come into popular use in East Africa over the past five to ten years (refer to Figures I.3 and I.11 in Appendix I).
LDPE plastics are currently not recyclable in Nairobi. Some of the composting groups (Hawkers Market and Dagoretti Corner) used to collect plastic bags for a local processor of recyclable plastics (Rupshi Enterprises), but recycling became unviable when chronic water shortages at Rupshi prevented proper cleaning of plastics before processing. In addition, the Hawkers Market group started a project using plastic bags to manufacture multi-purpose mats. However, the mats proved to be unmarketable as they could not sell them at a price that compensated for production costs. Although all of the groups reuse plastic bags to collect organic wastes from other households in the community, they still lack an appropriate method of final disposal.
Our newest product, , was recently featured as the interior finish of a local steel industrial building. NakedBoard+ is designed for use as an FRP replacement in kitchens, bathrooms, workshops, agricultural buildings and washable wallboard applications. The material’s high plastic content core provides added strength and moisture resistance while displaying its 100% recycled content.