The term 'Continuous Integration' originated with the Extreme Programming development process, as one of its original twelve practices. When I started at ThoughtWorks, as a consultant, I encouraged the project I was working with to use the technique. Matthew Foemmel turned my vague exhortations into solid action and we saw the project go from rare and complex integrations to the non-event I described. Matthew and I wrote up our experience in the original version of this paper, which has been one of the most popular papers on my site.
The instructor creates brief (1-3 item) weekly quizzes for students to complete at the start of class. Students are given a time limit (e.g., 5-10 minutes) to complete the quiz. Quiz questions should be constructed to require that students recall recent course content in order to answer them correctly. A key to making these quizzes motivating to students is to count them as extra credit (e.g., students have the option of replacing a single test grade in the course with their aggregate kickoff quiz grade, etc.). TIPS: If you have students who need extended time to complete the quiz, assign it as an optional take-home assignment. Invite students to submit their own quiz questions for you to use. Permit students to consult their textbook and class notes as needed during the quiz (to encourage them to actually use these materials!) Allow students to work together in small groups to complete the quiz. Individualize quizzes for those students in your room with special needs by including additional supports (e.g., excerpts from text, additional clues or hints) to ensure a high probability of success.
Humans are the large-brained, allegedly sentient species that dominates Earth, and humans have greatly altered evolutionary processes, down to “engineering” the DNA of organisms. We have a “nature” and multi-billion year heritage, as any organism does. How much have we changed ours, and how much do our natures really matter? Can we consciously change our natures or overcome them? The nature/nurture debate is quite old, and as the domestication of plants and animals has demonstrated, or the , nurture can nature by selective breeding at the least. The , as an experiment, and the changes were dramatic. There is plenty about humanity that is nature at work, such as a child's acquisition of language or the urge to procreate (and the related ). Also, a great deal is socially learned. At least half of the variance in human traits such as intelligence and personality has been attributed to genetics, and nearly all the rest is socialization by the peer group (I believe that the , and the guiding role, but that is not scientifically demonstrable, at least today). But few of those scientific findings regarding human nature, if any of them, are relevant to why imperial "entertainment" is no longer . The improvement in standard of living due to increased energy consumption has precipitated many changes in what was once considered human "nature," such as . In a , would the dominant ideologies exalt and ?
Because the subject needs to be addressed and I have been involved with it, I will describe what I am aware of regarding the UFO and extraterrestrial (“ET”) issue. The era of UFOs generally began with the . The CIA was founded a few months later. In the early 1990s, an emergency room doctor, Steven Greer, mounted an effort called the to inform the public about the UFO/ET issue, and Brian was prominently involved, . After years of briefing officials from many institutions, including the Vatican, United Nations, White House, Pentagon, and the USA’s Congress (and he received a scoffing or disbelieving reaction), secret congressional hearings were held so that witnesses could testify (and key Disclosure Project members immediately afterward). Ed Mitchell, who , co-chaired the hearings and about the ET presence. One Disclosure Project witness was , and , at least of those who could talk publicly about them. I am aware of recent astronaut close encounters that have been classified, as confessed by the astronauts. Brian had no doubt that his and the UFO-research “offer” were related.
I always respected Dennis and Brian the most in the FE field, and I valued their integrity above all else. Their great hearts attracted me to them, not their talent, genius, or fame. I have written plenty about my days with and , and interested readers can discover more if they wish. I hope to convey what the learning experience of carrying their spears was like. My and comprised the kind of education that few survive for long. Although my education with Brian was far gentler, I learned important lessons from him. If not for my adventures, I would not have much worth saying. Even though much of this essay “merely” deals with mainstream science theory and data, . This essay is obviously not the work of a professional scientist, historian, or economist.
The decline in real wages per hour and attendant rise in real prices for gasoline and homes is only a financial measure of the decline in energy resources and consumption. At the family budget level, as energy prices increase, all goods needing energy to produce such as gasoline, food, housing, medicine, and the like cost more. If they can even hold their marriages together (if they even get married anymore), both parents in American households work outside of their homes today, when only one did during the . As businesses try to remain competitive, wages are lower for those fortunate enough to keep their jobs, social goods such as education are prohibitively more expensive, and less money is available for anything beyond survival. For example, in the late 1970s and early 1980s I received a nearly free college education. In 2014, a college education comes with crippling debt as each student's "graduation present," unless the student has parents from the affluent class.
The rise of oil was the other radical energy event of the late 19th century. Rockefeller’s empire was originally built on replacing whale oil for lighting, but Edison’s light bulb soon ended that need, and little did Rockefeller suspect it, but oil’s big days were just ahead. Oil is the world’s most coveted resource for a few reasons. are near-solids in partial-lattice states, in which the temperature () is high enough so that lattices continually break and reform. Raise the temperature higher, and those partial lattices disintegrate and the liquid becomes a gas. Solids cannot flow, and liquids are far denser than gases, so a liquid energy resource will be far superior to a solid (coal) or gaseous (natural gas) fuel. A metric ton of oil contains nearly twice the energy of a metric ton of coal and can be pumped through pipes. Until World War I, most ships and trains were powered by coal (by the late 19th century, some boats and trains used oil, but they were a distinct minority). In 1769, as Watt was working on his first steam engine, a , and coal-powered cars were the standard until . and also existed in those early days, but oil was quickly seen as a superior fuel for those reasons stated above, and Henry Ford’s company, , quickly led to the dominance of oil-powered cars. The in 1903 with anything other than an oil-powered engine.
One major problem with making a positive impact on a global level, ultra-elite machinations aside, is that almost nobody focuses on what is important, which I hope to help remedy with this essay. Almost everybody hacks at branches if they hack at all. Conspiracists tend to obsess on elite machinations, which is an exercise of dubious benefit to begin with, but they often become paranoid and also confuse retail elites or other interests with the GCs. Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are probably not members of the GCs’ organization. Also, I learned that ultra-elites can only play their games with the responsibility that almost all people have abdicated as they play the victim. The GCs are only a symptom of our malaise, not a cause. They cannot be beaten at their game, and it is counterproductive and can even be suicidal to try. Making them obsolete is probably the best that we can do. While conspiracists often fixate on ultra-elite machinations, intellectuals, academics, and scientists tend to deny that such activities even exist or are meaningful. It took me many years to understand their resistance to even acknowledging ultra-elite existence, and I think it partly relates to the mainstream scientific worldview that . They have an ideological aversion to the notion that anybody manipulates events on a global scale, and believe that what seems conspiratorial is only anarchic elites competing with each other, which is like Darwin’s view of evolution. They believe that conspiracists see a pattern where none exists, or that the situation can be explained without invoking conscious intent, like materialistic hypotheses of how the universe operates. Radical leftists have to the of such elites; such an idea scares them. Neither obsession nor denial helps people attain productive understandings of the issue. Conspiracists and structuralists are united in thinking like victims, and that, as I see it, . Until they relinquish thinking like a victim, they will not constructively engage the critical issues that humanity faces, and energy ranks above all else. Victims are reactive instead of proactive, and only and resulting action has a prayer of working, in my opinion.
Newton invented his , but the science of energy did not develop until more than a century after the steam engine appeared. I have heard physicists question whether owed more to the steam engine than the converse. The so-called began their formulation with , which is actually the third of the four laws of thermodynamics and is the earliest enunciation of the concept of , and . A generation later, European scientists began taking his work further. The great works of , , and friends formed the foundation of today’s science of energy, and many basic terms of today’s energy science were named after the pioneers of energy technology and theory, including , , , , , , , , and .
Canals were competitive with railroads, sailing ships were competitive with steamboats, and watermills were competitive with steam-powered mills until around 1850. It for coal-powered steam to prevail against wind and water power. Water and wind power were not only geographically restricted, but they were also dependent on the weather. Calm air (and storms) and droughts (and floods) were the bane of wind and water power. Coal did not have those restrictions. American towns were built on hillsides above watermills to house the workforce. As coal-power made its ascendance, those mills and towns were abandoned. The pollution of industrial America’s cities could rival London’s. A visitor to Pittsburgh in 1841 described approaching the city as entering a dark cloud of coal smoke; the peoples and buildings inside it were blackened like some vision from hell. Far from an indictment, however, the visitor happily saw it as “progress” that would soon arrive at his home town of Cincinnati. The rivers of the Eastern Woodlands ran blue and clear before Europeans arrived. When I lived in Ohio, the Ohio River at Cincinnati in the 1990s had brown, stinking waters that nobody in their right minds would swim in. The Cuyahoga River that flows through Cleveland , and the 1969 fire finally led to environmental legislation that began to clean up the USA’s lakes, rivers, and air. The in the 1980s rivaled .