One topic that may fall in between is debating whether Intelligence is derived from either genes (nature) or from their surrounding and personal leanings (nurture).
In the support of the nature-nurture debate, psychologists used the studies of twins. There are two types of twins, identical twins and fraternal twins. Identical twins are from the same fertilized egg of the mother and they share the same genes as each other ( E pg 62). In addition, fraternal twins are from different egg cells and they do not share the same genes. In other words, identical twins share 100 percent of their genetic contents and fraternal twins share 50 percent of the same content (Wortman, Loftus & Weaver, 1999). For example, in the study of a genetic based disorder, schizophrenia, identical twins are rated four times higher in getting the disorder than fraternal twins (Neil, 2001). From just the studies of these two types of twins, researchers could only estimate the degree of environmental influence on behavior. So in order for researchers to find out the extent of genetic influence on human behavior, identical twins of the same genetics but were raised in different environment are used.
There has always been a large controversy over whether
inherited genes or the environment influences and effects our
personality, development, behavior, intelligence and ability. This
controversy is most often recognized as the nature verses nurture
conflict. Some people believe that it is strictly genes that effect our
ways of life, others believe that it is the environment that effects us,
and some believe that both of these influence our behavior. Either way,
social scientists have been struggling for centuries deciding whether
our personalities are born or made. Tests are done often on identical
twins that were separated to see how they are each influenced by their
An essay or paper on A Debate between Nature and Nurture. For Essay On Nature Versus Nurture many years now society and psychologists have been studying and debating a major issue.
Every person in this world has their own distinctive personality and behavior. People may wonder why an individual may act the way they do. Thus psychologists had put this into a study of whether an individual’s behaviors are caused by hereditary or the environment. This study is known as the nature-nurture debate. This essay will discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to how it influences the human traits and behavior focusing on twin and adoption studies. Furthermore the essay will also discuss how hereditary and the environment influences on the behavior of intelligence base on twin and adoption studies.
Personality And The Nature Vs Nurture Debate. essaysPsychology is a scientific analysis of state of mind and behaviour. These studies have been taking place
The history of nature-nurture debate started off with famous philosophers like John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau (Feldman, 1997). John Locke believed that human behavior is solely influenced by nurture. By this is meant that human were born with an empty brain and we learnt and developed through the experiences in life (Myers, 2000). In contrast, Jean Jacques Rousseau suggested that human development was due to individual’s genetic factors which means that human trait and behavior is more or less develop the moment of birth (Feldman, 1997). In the present time, psychologists share the same thinking that both nature and nurture interdependently rely on each other in human development (Westen, 2002). Clearly it can be seen that the concept of the debate had changed. Now, psychologists are more interested in to what extend can genetic factors and the environment, affect the development of human trait and behavior (Feldman, 1997).
Another form of study in support of the nature-nurture debate is the study of adoptees. Research made has conclude that between the biological parents and adoptive parents, the adoptee is more similar to his or her biological parents (Sodorow, 1995). Adoption studies have found evidence that adopted children who share genes with their biological parents are greatly influence by genetic on their IQs (G pg 318). Similar studies have also found that adoptees share the same religious value as their biological parents rather than adoptive parents (Sodorow, 1995).
The debate of nature versus nurture had been dated back to the time of Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle (Crooks & Stein, 1991). In this context, according to Feldman (1997), nature means the genetic influence on the individual’s behavior. In relation to that, nurture means the effect the environment has on that individual, for example influence of parents or friends. The purpose of the nature-nurture debate is to explain the effect of genetic influence and the environment on the development of human trait and behavior (Crooks & Stein, 1991).
Intelligence provides a better understanding to the discussion of the nature-nurture debate. According to (Miele, 2002), various studies on intelligence of identical twins being rear apart had shown the result to be 0.78. Following that, the fact that correlations in IQ between parents and the adopted child is about 0.19, and the result between the adopted child and the natural children of the adoptive parents is about 0.32. Fisher (1918, as cited in Miele, 2002) calculated the correlation for any heritable trait on cases such as the identical twins. The reading would be 1.00 since the twins share the exact genes and for fraternal twins, the reading is 0.5. Surprisingly, the tests conducted on identical and fraternal twins who were rear apart reveal the following results. The higher one of the twins scored, the lower the other one gets. From this, (Miele, 2002) conclude that since the results is quite similar to the predictions, genetic factors do influence in human development.
In conclusion, this essay has discussed the general role of the nature-nurture debate and how it can affect the human traits and behavior. Clearly it can be seen that both genetic factors and the environment can influence the intelligence in human through the studies of twins and adoptees.
What are your thoughts on the Nature vs. Nurture argument?
What is the history of this issue?
What are the most essential characteristics of this issue?
What are your concluding thoughts?