In all of the cases above, the standards of academic integrity require citing the source in the text of your essay its incorporation into your bibliography. To be clear, it is enough to simply list a source in your bibliography if it deserves explicit citation in the essay’s body. Failure to provide that citation may result in being charged with plagiarism.
For international students, it’s especially important to review and understand the citation standards and expectations for institutions of higher learning in the United States. Students who have done their college preparation at schools in other countries may have learned research and paper-writing practices different from those at Princeton. For example, students from schools in East Asia may learn that copying directly from sources, without citation, is the proper way to write papers and do research. Students in France, preparing for the Baccalaureate examination, may be encouraged to memorize whole passages from secondary sources and copy them into papers and exam essays. Those cultural differences can sometimes lead to false assumptions about citation practices and expectations at Princeton. Again, you are responsible for reading and understanding the University’s academic regulations as defined and explained in You must ask for assistance from your professors or preceptors if you’re not sure.
The insightfulness of an essay often is directly related to the organization and the support and development of the ideas in the essay. If you have well-developed body paragraphs focused on one specific point each, then it is likely that you are going into depth with the ideas you present and are offering an insightful interpretation.
How many facts do you need to support each claim that you make in a persuasive essay? Good question. To some extent, the amount of evidence you need depends on the claim you are trying to support. However, I think it's a good idea to present at least three facts to support each claim. One fact is almost never enough, and it's difficult to build a strong argument with only two facts. After all, I might be able to take one or even two statements that Thoreau makes and argue for all kinds of different meanings, ignoring the possibility that these meanings may not be suggested anywhere else in all of Thoreau's writings. Would you like someone drawing conclusions about beliefs you might have based upon only one statement you made at some point in your life?
Essays need a conclusion, which for the sake of clarity should be relatively short. It is generally best not to include new ideas or new material in your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the prior arguments. You may, however, point to alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by the essay. People often get the wrong idea about conclusions and believe that this is the place to state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to make a stand and come down on the side of one argument or another. This can be the case but it is not necessarily so. If an essay title comes in the form of a question, for example 'Is James Joyce seeking to distance himself from traditional forms of Irish culture?', and you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem. It is as much a sign of intelligence to state that you cannot decide as it is to sift through the evidence and decide one way or the other. Think about why you cannot decide. Perhaps the evidence is conflicting. Perhaps the literary text and its use of imagery is ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is often the case. If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide. Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by the title, or by questions raised directly in responding to the title. If so, say so. A forced conclusion to an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at all.
The elimination of errors from your writing is important. In fact, according to IVCC's , "A," "B," and "C" essays contain almost no errors. Significant or numerous errors are a characteristic of a "D" or "F" essay.
These two sentences could be the beginning of a paragraph. If so, what should my next sentence be? I suppose I could go on to present a second and then a third piece of supporting evidence for my claim, but am I sure that readers will be able to understand how the quotation I use is logically supporting my claim? I can assume that my readers are intelligent, so maybe they could figure out the connection, but I also should realize that, as the writer, it is my job to make sure everything in my essay is clear to readers. Therefore, I probably should supply some explanation as to how this quotation is supporting the claim, so my next sentence could be the following:
This articleis based upon my own experiences as a writer and in the classroom – and I dothis as someone whose ability and love for writing enabled me to move up out ofthe Jordan Downs Housing Projects in South central Los Angeles, pass throughHarvard, Stanford and Antioch Universities, and settle into a position where Ican now share my love for the craft and love of writing itself with others. Forthose of you concerned solely with writing better paragraphs and essays, what Ihave to say should offer some insights on accomplishing that task. For those ofyou, though, who see writing as a means to affect social attitudes and changethe way people view issues (and one another), perhaps what I have to say willhelp jar some now thoughts into existence. I certainly hope so.
This point came home to me a few weeks ago when I was wandering across the university grounds. There, beneath a classically cast portico, were two students, male and female, having a rip-roaring argument. They were incensed, bellowing at each other, headstrong, confident, and wild. It struck me how rarely I see this kind of full-out feeling in students anymore. Strong emotional display is forbidden. When conflicts arise, it's generally understood that one of the parties will say something sarcastically propitiating ("whatever" often does it) and slouch away.
Also, it explains how to decide when to choose passive voice instead of active. Although instant and text/SMS messaging is beginning to supplant email for some groups' primary means of Internet communication, effective and appropriate email etiquette is still important.
Given the subject, purpose, and audience for each essay in this course, you should use a . This means that you should avoid use of the first person ("I," "me," "we," etc.), the use of contractions ("can't," "won't," etc.), and the use of slang or other informal language. A formal writing voice will make you sound more convincing and more authoritative.
It is an opportunity that may be best explained by Alan Watt’s quote from the introduction to his Philosophies of Asia, “philosophy is man's expression of curiosity about everything and his attempt to make sense of the world primarily through his intellect; that is to say, his faculty for thinking.” Imagine we are building a house out of brick....