Unlike other protests in South Vietnam, the Caravelle Manifesto was widely publicized in the U.S. press. Embarrassed by the letter, Washington officials instructed U.S. Ambassador Elbridge Durbrow to urge Diem to open the political process to just the sort of people who signed the Caravelle Manifesto. Durbrow suggested this to Diem and also encouraged him to give radio “fireside chats” to explain to the people the ways of his government, as if Diem were Franklin D. Roosevelt offering New Deal programs. Diem was intransigent. He harassed and arrested the signers, and published false information about them in order to ruin their reputations.
Continuous arrests fill the jails and prisons to the rafters, as at this precise moment, public opinion and the press are reduced to silence…. Political parties and religious sects have been eliminated…. Today the people want freedom. You should, Mr. President, liberalize the regime, promote democracy, guarantee minimum civil rights, recognize the opposition so as to permit the citizens to express themselves without fear, thus removing grievances and resentments.
The ideal that even the poorest of citizens can aspire to achieve greatness with hard work and talent, is the American Dream that is at the heart of every U.S.
The pioneering Middle Eastern American theatre triumvirate is completed by a New York–based community of artists that calls itself Nibras, meaning lantern lighting the way. One of the founders, Maha Chehlaoui, an actress and director whose father is Syrian and mother Filipino, was inspired by the work of Ma-Yi, an Asian American theatre in New York that did only Filipino work in its early years. “I wondered if Arab Americans had stories worth telling. I was learning that when you get people of a shared heritage together, stories come out that you might not hear in a diverse group.” (32)
The second play, Perestroika, reveals the disappointing reality that often emerges in the wake of millennial hopes. It is a post-millenial play, but not, I would argue, a dystopic one, though it quite firmly seems to put paid to the idea of political revolution, at least in 1990s America. Prior is still sick; the world has not been transformed; and Prior has still fully to understand just what his particular angel wants from him. Eventually she instructs him; his mission as a prophet to the nations is to command a halt to mixing, mingling, traveling, and questing. He is to preach the doctrine of stasis and immobility. In explaining this mission, the angel says that God has abandoned his angels and abandoned heaven because God has become enthralled with his own creation, Protean humanity, and its restless drive toward change. In what I consider to be a key moment in the text, Prior refuses to accept the angel’s mission, and, by implication, her negative view of change. In so doing, he repudiates, first, the idea that all calls to election must be answered; some must and should be refused. He also repudiates a historical vision that is mainly restorative in nature, that looks backward to a lost moment of plenitude rather than forward to an indeterminate but living future; and he repudiates the consolations of Christian transcendence. Prior refuses to die and to be at peace. Instead, he demands to return to earth and to receive “the Blessing” for this choice.
U.S. planners hoped to turn Diem into a popular democratic leader, but few Vietnamese supported a permanent division of their country, and the Diem government proved corrupt and repressive in any case. The U.S. could install a new government, but it could not create a new “South Vietnamese” national identity. Family relations typically extended north and south. Moreover, in the south as well as the north, most regarded the communist-led Viet Minh as great patriots, having fought and sacrificed to end French rule. Ho Chi Minh was, in effect, the George Washington of Vietnam.
Woodson is called “The Father of Black History” because he worked really hard to make sure black history was taught in schools and studied by students.
He founded Black History Month because he strongly believed that people should be aware of African American history and culture, and it is still celebrated around the United States of America....
It reveals the trials and tribulations of the Help, thus exposing the culture of pre-civil rights movement and leading the audience to critically consider American history....
Kushner Tony, and Robert Vorlicky. 1998. Tony Kushner in Conversation, ed. Robert Vorlicky, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Roman, David. 1997. “November 1, 1992:AIDS/Angels in America” in Approaching the Millenium, Eds. Geis and Krugers. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
NYTW also did a 2007 staged reading of Israeli American Rebekah Maggor’s first play Two Days at Home—Three Days in Prison. Maggor, who was born in Colorado, raised in Israel and did her service in the Israeli Defense Forces before attending Columbia University, was chosen as a 2007-08 Playwriting Fellow by the Huntington Theatre in Boston, where she performed her one-woman show Shakespeare’s Actresses in America. She has since written two new plays, the latest on commission from MIT. (43)
Savran, David. 1997. “Ambivalence, Utopia, and A Queer Sort of Materialism: How Angels in America Reconstructs the Nation,” in Approaching the Millennium: Essays on Angels in America. Eds. Geis and Krugers. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Solomon, Alisa. 1997. “Wrestling with Angels: A Jewish Fantasia,” Approaching the Millenium: Essays on Angels in America. Eds. Geis and Krugers. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Betchel, Roger. 2001. “’A Kind of Painful Progress’: The Benjaminian Dialectics of Angels in America.” Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism (Fall):