Note: AP means Ancient Pronunciation whereas MP means Modern Pronunciation. These represent the phonetic values of the Greek letters in Classical and modern times respectively.
Northern Mesopotamia (North Iraq) was called Assyria. The ancient Assyrian people were of an unknown race, living in small villages around 5000 to 4000 BC. Its civilization was somewhat similar to ancient Babylonia but it had a better climate for agriculture. Before 3000 BC the Semite group of people came and settled over there. They were a mixture of many races, and spoke Semitic language (that is related to Hebrew or Arabic of today). The Assyrian kingdom was like a dependency of Babylonia for most of the time up to 2nd millennium BC, but very little is known about early Assyrian people. It became an independent kingdom around 1400 BC, briefly expanded its kingdom between 1200 to 1000 BC, but after 800 BC it expanded considerably, and, between 744 and 670 BC, it conquered all the states from Babylonia to Egypt. After 635 BC a civil war broke out and then Babylonians attacked in 614 BC which finally ended the Assyrian empire.
From the time of Galen in ancient Rome to the 14th and 15th centuries in England the relationships between doctors and patients have evolved, along with the way medicine is defined and practiced.
These verses depict the passion, love, and perspectives of the ancient civilizations The Songs of Aztec Nobility encompass the curiosity of the speaker towards her social environment....
Another area of Greek achievement is theater. Plays began to become important in ancient Greece and two types of plays which were written and performed were comedies and tragedies. A comedy in ancient Greece was usually a play that marked or made fun of a certain topic, person, or group of people. One famous comedy writer was Aristophanes. He wrote the plays The Birds and Lysistrata. An tragedy in ancient Greece usually dealt with a moral or social issue, human suffering, and almost always ended in disaster. Three famous Greek tragedy writers are Aeschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles. Aeschylus wrote the play The Oresteia, Euripides wrote the play Medea, and Sophocles wrote the plays Oedipus the King and Antigone. One of the most famous out of all of these plays was Antigone. It was written in about 441 B.C. and was about a girl named Antigone who defies the king's orders and buries her brother, who was killed while leading a rebellion. In this play, many Greek values were expressed which is also the purpose of most western civilization plays today (to express certain values). Also, the ideas of comedies and tragedies are used in western civilization except expanded and twisted around a little. A lot of famous play writers today are also inspired by the works of play writers from ancient Greece.
Another controlling device used against Roman women was the practise of not allowing them to have personal names. Instead, a woman took her father's middle name or and feminized it. From a Roman woman's name you could tell who her father was and therefore, her position in society. Women existed within their families and had no identity of their own. Their fathers had absolute control over their lives and could even sell them into slavery or force them into a marriage and out of one, too. Some women were forced to get a divorce because their fathers had found more lucrative and prestigious families for them to marry into. If they had children at the time of the divorce, women were forced to leave them behind. When marriages dissolved, women had no legal rights concerning the offspring and often never saw them again. Marriages were often without , meaning that the father kept the property of his daughter and would therefore, retain a hold over her wealth. A marriage with gave power over the woman to her new husband, as well as ownership of her property. In either case, Roman women were not permitted to do anything they wanted with their own money, since personal wealth is always equated with power. Of course, there were some exceptions. Mothers could spend money on their sons' political careers or education. One can also read about Cicero's wife, Terentia, who had personal wealth and made land investments on her own. That was only because she had a very agreeable guardian who gave his permission. It would seem likely that women with wealth would have more power over their lives, but this would very much depend upon her father or guardian or husband. Women were expected to have a legal guardian because they were not considered smart enough to act in their own best interest. When Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, was widowed, she refused to marry again and as a result, made her own decisions, but this was very rare. The only real power that most women possessed was over their personal interactions within the circle of their friends and family. Women had to know their place, remain modest, be tireless, and both loyal and obedient to their families - emotionally, physically, and financially. That was what Roman men were looking for in a wife.
Varying societal views can be demonstrated in England and China, during the Tudor and Victorian eras, and Ancient China and the Qing dynasty respectively....
Before 3000 BC those people were living in the Northern part, afterwards they moved to the South. Northwestern Semites spoke mainly Hebrew and Aramaic language. (The ancient Israelites, who lived in Palestine in Biblical times and who spoke Hebrew and wrote in Hebrew, were called the Hebrews.) Southern Semites spoke Arabic. There were many dialects and a number of offshoots of Aramaic and Arabic languages.
So it is evident that women had certain prescribed roles to play within Roman society: child bearer, mother, daughter, and wife. They were considered citizens, but they were not permitted to vote or participate in government procedures. If they did try, it was frowned upon. Some women were more educated than others. All had some personal freedoms. Lower class women could work, but upper class women were expected to meet the expectations that their families had set out for them and stay at home. None of the women really had their own identities or an array of personal choices put before them. There are always some exceptions and there must have been women considered very radical in their time. Women were always overshadowed by the men in their lives because Rome was a very patriarchal society, built on a peasant culture and on the old customs of . Quoting Ennius, Cicero said, "the strength of Rome is founded on her ancient customs as much as on the strength of her sons." Roman women might have had it better than , but that's not saying much. Rich or poor, most died young. One can only hope they had a few pleasures that were never documented by the men who wrote about them. Some did get involved in the rites of Bacchus and probably did enjoy themselves a great deal for short periods of time, before they were caught.
People who originally lived on the eastern side of the Mediterranean spoke a kind of language that was called Semite, thus, the Semite-speaking people were called the Semites. Hebrew and Arabic are the main descendents of the Semitic language. The Semite people lived mainly in what is now called Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon (Phoenicia) and Iraq (Mesopotamia), then they moved to Arabia and North Africa. Ancient Assyrians, Babylonians, Hebrews and the Canaanites of Canaan were also Semites. Canaan was the Biblical name for the land on the East Mediterranean coastal area around the Dead Sea and the Jordan river. It was also called Palestine. Judaism and Christianity originated from there.
Although the role of women in ancient Rome was primarily child-bearing, women also played an important role in raising the children. This differed greatly from the Athenian tradition which placed both the cultural and educational aspects of raising boys exclusively in the hands of men. In the Roman world, women were encouraged to teach their children Roman culture. When the boys grew up, the mother would spend both her money and time to advance their political careers.Even the girls would receive this sort of home education because they would be expected to teach their own children one day. In , Quintilian reports that Cornelia, mother of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, played a major role in their education and cultivation. Roman women had children, but they were not exclusively "tools of reproduction" -- they "were also a fundamental instrument of the transmission of a culture ... [and] it was their job to prepare them to become ... " Who were they preparing to become Roman citizens? Were only the males given citizenship, as was the case for centuries in Athens? This is a difficult question to answer.
We will never know what the women of ancient Rome thought about their inferior social position or what they thought about the many layers of separation that existed between themselves and Roman men. The ancient Roman world was a very patriarchal culture, with men holding all the positions of power. Women and children really did not have many rights. In reality, life must have been difficult for the majority of people in Rome considering all the years of war and conquer. Life wasn't very easy for anyone. Although the Romans were not pioneers in social equality, the civilization had a great influence on both men and women who came later. They were building an empire and as the legendary H.I. Marrou stated in his book, :