More stories of kind mentoring in a new home come courtesy of another elephant rescue site, this one in Kenya, where orphans are raised to be reintroduced as adults into the wild. This is a big adjustment, not often attempted for animals who have lived for some length of time in a captive or domesticated setting, but the new releases are helped by older elephants who have gone through the same thing themselves (especially important in welcoming them into a herd that is not their blood kin). In a in , head keeper Joseph Sauni recounts how an adventurous little one named Irima ran away to try out his independence early. After a few days, a trumpety clamor was heard at the gate. “Irima must have told the group that he still needed his milk and orphan family and wanted to go back,” says Sauni, so Edo, a graduate of the center, walked Irima home. “The keepers opened the gate, and Edo escorted Irima all the way back to the stockades. Edo drank some water from the well, ate some food, and took off again. Mission accomplished.”
Caterpillars are peculiar beasts. Unlike adult insects, which have a rigid external skeleton, caterpillars have a flexible skin and support themselves with what is known as a hydrostatic skeleton--a volume of incompressible fluid that transmits forces and pressures from muscular contraction through the body. In essence, they are animated water balloons with the incompressible fluid (the blood, filling all of the body cavities) surrounded by a tension-resisting skin. Like the giant octopus in It Came from Beneath the Sea, the caterpillar ought to generate some extreme pressures when it crawls up the radio tower. What's more, the tensile stress in a pressurized cylinder (a reasonable model for a giant caterpillar) is directly proportional to the radius of the cylinder; since the caterpillar has a radius of about 30 feet, the stresses are going to be extreme. Mothra's skin must be reinforced with something having a tensile strength well in excess of steel.
In conclusion water's unique properties make it perhaps the most biologically important substance on the planet. No other substance shares similar properties to water and in the way that one single molecule can possess such varied and essential characteristics.
Specific lipids have a physiological importance to humans; they have three major functions; serving as structural components of biological membranes, act as vitamins and hormones, provide energy storage (triaculglycerols).
Because of water's strong hydrostatic forces water is incompressible. This provides support for soft bodied creatures such as worms, slugs and jellyfish which therefore do not require a supporting skeletal system. Water allows cells filled with water to become turgid and due to it's incompressibility plants can support themselves.
Water also has a high specific heat capacity, the result of this is that it takes 4.2 Joules of energy to raise one gram of water by 1oC. This means that it takes a lot of heat energy to raise the temperature of water significantly, but once warm it cools slowly. This is essential to life where internal body temperature has to be maintained at a constant temperature and fluctuations can result in a breakdown of essential processes. Large bodies of water will remain at an almost constant temperature with only very gradual changes which makes temperature regulations for organisms far more straightforward.
Notable amongst the anomalies of water is the opposite properties of hot and cold water, with the anomalous behavior more accentuated at low temperatures where the properties of supercooled water often diverge from those of hexagonal ice.In particular, several properties of water change at about 50 °C ; just above the body temperature of mammals and about which many proteins denature. As (supercooled) cold liquid water is heated bulk water and becomes less easy to , its increases, the within it increases, gases become and it is and better. In contrast, as hot liquid water is heated it , it becomes easier to , its reduces, the within it decreases, gases become and it is and a poorer . With increasing pressure, , cold water molecules but hot water molecules . Hot water than cold water and ice except at high pressures when liquid water .
Because of the large number of bonds holding water molecules together, it takes 2 kJ per gram of water which is a considerable amount of energy to separate the bonds and turn the liquid to vapour. Water is therefore described as having a high latent heat of evaporation. Animals use this property of water by using excess body heat to evaporate water from their surfaces, resulting in them transferring a lot of energy into the environment but only losing a little water. Sweating and panting are based on this principle.
Among other inorganic contaminants, chromium can be found in water as a result of anthropogenic processes like electroplating, leather tanning, textile and pigment manufacturing and wood preserving (U.S.E.P.A., 2000)....
At 4 °C water expands on . This density maximum together with the low ice density results in (i) the necessity that all of a body of fresh water (not just its surface) is close to 4 °C before any freezing can occur, (ii) the freezing of rivers, lakes, and oceans is from the top down, so permitting survival of the bottom ecology, insulating the water from further freezing, reflecting back sunlight into space and allowing rapid thawing, and (iii) density driven thermal convection causing seasonal mixing in deeper temperate waters carrying life-providing oxygen into the depths. The large heat capacity of the oceans and seas allows them to act as heat reservoirs such that sea temperatures vary only a third as much as land temperatures and so moderate our planet's climate (for example, the Gulf stream carries tropical warmth to northwestern Europe). The compressibility of water reduces the sea level by about 40 m giving us 5% more land . Water's high plus its encourages the erosion of rocks to give soil for our agriculture.
Water also has a high latent heat of fusion from solid to liquid. It requires 300 J per gram of ice to melt it to water. This means that water stays liquid. This is vital in the case of cytoplasm in cells which is made of a high percentage of water because once frozen the cell would be irreparably damaged. The freezing point of water is also lowered by solutes because the soluble molecules disrupt the hydrogen bonds making the water freeze at a lower temperature and it easier to melt ice. As there are many solutes in cytoplasm the water will not freeze until well below 0oC and the cells are protected until the temperature gets extremely low.
The high cohesion between molecules gives it a high freezing and melting point, such that we and our planet are bathed in liquid water. The large heat capacity, high thermal conductivity and high water content in organisms contribute to thermal regulation and prevent local temperature fluctuations, thus allowing us to more easily control our body temperature. The high latent heat of evaporation gives resistance to dehydration and considerable evaporative cooling. It has unique towards important biological macromolecules (particularly proteins and nucleic acids) that determine their three-dimensional structures, and hence their biological functions, in solution. This hydration forms gels that can reversibly undergo the gel-sol phase transitions that underlie many cellular mechanisms . and allows easy proton exchange between molecules, so contributing to the richness of the ionic interactions in biology. Also, it is an due to its polarity, high relative permittivity (dielectric constant) and small size, particularly for polar and ionic compounds and salts.