the anxiety sufferers, the people receiving these acts of kindness, even you, as you receive full marks for critical thinking in your IB Psychology exam!
However, IB Psychology students, if you find yourself in a classroom where anxiety disorders are the focus of the Abnormal Option, then we have a great way to incorporate that all important critical thinking into your extended response answers (i.e., that 22 mark essay question you are required to answer in your IB Psychology Paper 2 exam).
The concept also makes for a great IB Psychology Extended Essay, especially when confined a specific concept - such as the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of depression.
So what are they?
Simply put, a placebo, as defined in IB Psychology, is a substance that has no therapeutic effect, and is used as a control in testing new drugs.
This brings us, finally, to the question of the relationship of social psychology to the other socialsciences, a subject we are now better equipped to discuss than we were at the beginning of thevolume. Some sociologists many years ago looked upon sociology as primarily an applicationofpsychology to the theory of the organization of collective contacts, and recently there has been astrong movement to make analogous statements regarding economics. Doubtless we shall in timeobserve
Positive Psychology is the scientific study of the strengths that enable individuals and communities to thrive. The field is founded on the belief that people want to lead meaningful and fulfilling lives, to cultivate what is best within themselves, and to enhance their experiences of love, work, and play.
Real life examples: smoking because others in your peer group smoke, dressing like your friends in order to fit in or avoid bullying.
Examples of Psychological research
Ellwood was the first product of the University of Chicago's graduate program in Social Psychology. When published by the University of Chicago Press, (1900) predated either the Ross or McDougall texts by seven years.
Our concern was with social psychology rather than with the other social sciences or with socialscience in general. Consequently, it was necessary in Part I to define the relationship
(584) of social psychology to the other social sciences and especially to give an account of theseveral types of social psychology. In the light of our earlier definitions and distinctions it seemsessential to characterize social psychology as the science which studies the development ofcollective or social adjustment patterns in the individual as the result of his contacts with hisvarious environments, especially with the most important of all of these environments, thepsycho-social. This viewpoint in social psychology recognizes all three of the phases of sciencewhich we have isolated or defined and which were stated in the preceding paragraph.
There are several general statements that you can make in the conclusion to take it beyond merely summarising the essay. What are the implications of this argument? Why is it important? What issues does it raise?
Luther Lee Bernard. "Summary and Conclusions."Chapter 37 in An Introduction to Social Psychology. New York: Henry Holt andCo.(1926): 583-589.
(586) more or less to bridge the gaps in the older treatises. The present work, in bringing togetherand harmonizing and relating the partial treatments of other previous writers, is merely followingout the principles set forth in our definition of science. The school of Tarde and Ross emphasizedprimarily the dynamic aspects of the psycho-social environment, although it did not define orclassify environments. The school of Cooley has developed the relationship of the environmentto the individual and the consequent changes in the individual, without treating either process ina wholly concrete and detailed manner. McDougall's school has attempted to account for changesoccurring in the individual on the basis of their derivation from within rather than as the result ofthe reaction of the organism to selecting stimuli from without. This school does not deny theoperation of external pressures, but in practice it assigns but little importance to them and offersno account of their operation. The work of Child and Herrick has justified the present writer inhis earlier emphasis upon the selective function of environment and has provided him with aconcrete method of accounting for organic and neural changes in the individual behavior inresponse to environment, while the theory of the conditioning of responses through positiveassociation and the inhibitions of protopathic stimuli has given the basis for an account of themechanisms of acquiring those behavior patterns of a higher neuro-psychic order which functionin civilization. The chief additional contribution made to the subject of social psychology by thepresent work has been in the application of data known analytically by the psychologists to adetailed synthetic account of the ways in which the individual actually acquires his adjustmentbehavior patterns or habits of adaptation and control in a collective or social situation and thuscomes to integrate his personality.
(587) -lieves that the concept has a valid and perhaps an indispensable place in social psychologyand sociology, although probably not in individual psychology as such. It is true that the wholeprocess of imitation can be described in terms of the conditioning of responses. Imitation ismerely a short cut symbol, like many other such, with a definite meaning of its own. Because it isa short cut symbol for an involved social-psychological process it is valuable in the theory ofsociology and the other social sciences which deal with psycho-social processes in the large anddo not enter into detailed psychological analyses of these processes. It has seemed to the authorthat the proper place to present this analysis is in social psychology, which overlaps with bothpsychology and sociology.