Children and students with TBI can suffer from learning disabilities, mental retardation or emotional disturbance, because not all educational professional are aware of the consequences of such kind of trauma for their students and teaching techniques that should be applied in this case (Gerring, 1995). TBI should be considered as a separate type of mental disability and schools should work out special education programs for such students. This is evident, that when children come back to school or college after TBI, their educational capacity changes greatly and their emotional state has a significant impact upon their educational process and perception of the material. For most of these children returning to school turns out to be a rather painful procedure, because they will have to face a number of difficulties. First of all the process of learning is based on perception of new information and remembering the new facts, and children after TBI have problems with short memory. Secondly, children have energy limit and thus this can be also not easy for them to remain active the whole school day and to cope with all the tasks as quickly as it is done by their peers. Even if they do well in the morning, they can easily get tired by afternoon. And the third vitally important problem is connected with communication, children pay a lot of attention to their relations with schoolmates and friends at school. Children and teenagers returning to school or college could be even more concentrated on renewal of their former social relations than on studying.
Residential CIR programs were initially developed for individuals who not only required extended comprehensive TBI rehabilitation but also required 24-hour supervision or did not have access to adequate outpatient/day services. The homelike environment and staff support the skill development needed to negotiate everyday life, easing generalization across community environments.
The third major area of focus is a detailed treatment of the symptoms and challenges of TBI. From the beginning of the Brain Injury Law Group we have been struck by the numerous miracles in coma cases, and the countless tragedies in the non-coma cases. Remarkably all severity of TBI often pose very similar chronic challenges to the survivor and the survivor's family and friends. After the severe brain injury conditions have been identified and treated, the diffuse and subtle problems relating to fatigue, memory, multi-attending and depression remain. So while we have expanded our treatment of the coma brain injury one of our most important missions is to broaden understanding of the subtle effects of brain injury.
Abstract — Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem in civilian, military, and veteran populations. Individuals experiencing moderate to severe TBI require a continuum of care involving acute hospitalization and postacute rehabilitation, including community reintegration and, one would hope, a return home to function as a productive member of the community. In the military, the goal is to help individuals with TBI return to active duty or make an optimal return to civilian life if the extent of their injuries necessitates a "medical board" discharge. Whether civilian, military, or veteran with TBI, individuals who move beyond the need to live in a facility must be reintegrated back into the community. This article discusses four treatment models for community reintegration, reviews treatment standardization and outcome issues, and describes a manualized rehabilitation pilot program designed to provide community reintegration and return to duty/work for civilians, veterans, and military personnel with TBI.
Our starting point of what we now simply call "subtle brain injury" (what is medically referred to as the post concussion syndrome) is correcting the ignorance about TBI. A TBI can occur even though there was no documented loss of consciousness, no blow to the head, and even though all imaging studies have been normal. We focus on efforts on explaining the science of TBI at . To continue on with our treatment of TBI .
About our Advocacy: We of the Brain Injury Law Group provde brain injury legal representation. But advocacy is more than being a lawyer. Advocacy means dedicating resources to the community the TBI community - the survivor, the family member of the survivor, the medical professional. To that end, we have created these TBI pages to help you learn and solve the problems you face.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defines traumatic brain injury as “an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance” (Hughes, 2000).Traumatic brain injury can be also referred to as head injury and is the result of unexpected trauma, followed by brain damage. Trauma can be close and penetrating as well. The scope of damage to the brain defines the type of the symptoms of TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury), they include mild, moderate and severe (Tucker, 2003). Not all symptoms can become obvious immediately, some emerge only several days or even months later. After this kind of injury the patient is luckily to suffer from headaches, movement disorders, seizures, difficulty walking, lethargy and even coma (Hughes, 2000). There are also problems with memory and mathematics. Emotions of such patients are not stable any more, they are disposed to agitation, mood changes, depression, delusions and so on.
General results of TBI can be of different types and continuation. Traumatic brain injury might result in one of the six types of states of consciousness: stupor, coma, persistent vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome, and brain death (Tucker, 2003).
Brain injury has always been a possible consequence of military duty. The frequency of TBI in the military and the need to develop new medical technologies to address the efficiency of evolving warfare have been instrumental in encouraging research and advancement of clinical care for TBI . Recognition of the unique challenges of TBI in the military and the need to provide effective treatment approaches contributed to the development of the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC), established in 1992 (formerly known as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program). The DVBIC provides an integrated program to enhance clinical quality, research, and education across the military and veteran TBI treatment continuum, including community-integrated brain injury rehabilitation through its civilian partner, Virginia NeuroCare (VANC).
The professional and public focus on TBI in the military has dramatically increased with the rise of brain injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. With regard to OIF, the Office of the Surgeon General of the Army notes that 64 percent of wounded-in-action injuries are the result of blasts from improvised explosive devices (IEDs), rocket-propelled grenades, land mines, or mortar/artillery shells . Given the improvements in protective helmets and the resultant reductions in penetrating head trauma, closed-head blast injuries have become the signature injury of these military operations .
Many individuals who sustain TBI in military and civilian settings are treated and return to active duty, productive work and social roles, family responsibilities, and their premorbid lifestyle. However, some TBI survivors live with residual disability, have unmet care needs, or are initially unsuccessful in reentering home, military, vocational, and community life. Those TBI survivors at risk for unsatisfactory outcomes or with continued rehabilitation needs are candidates for community-integrated rehabilitation (CIR).